Today, the full driving task seems to be too complex and unwanted. An autonomous vehicle or driverless vehicle is capable of operating without human involvement by sensing its environment or surrounding. Thus automatic vehicle has the ability to operate itself and perform necessary functions which are necessary while driving a vehicle. Hence a human driver presence is not at all necessary to take control and operate an automatic vehicle at any time. An Autonomous vehicle is different from traditional vehicle. It operates a fully automated functions of a driving system or panel to reply to extern
Today, the full driving task seems to be too complex and unwanted. An autonomous vehicle or driverless vehicle is capable of operating without human involvement by sensing its environment or surrounding. Thus automatic vehicle has the ability to operate itself and perform necessary functions which are necessary while driving a vehicle. Hence a human driver presence is not at all necessary to take control and operate an automatic vehicle at any time. An Autonomous vehicle is different from traditional vehicle. It operates a fully automated functions of a driving system or panel to reply to external conditions that a human driver would manage in traditional vehicle. An autonomous vehicle can go anywhere like a normal vehicle with human driver or traditional vehicle goes. It also can do everything and respond to the things that an experienced human driver does. Autonomous vehicle technology offers the prospect of primarily changing transportation.
This technology is most easily conceptualized using a five-part continuum suggested by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), with different benefits of the technology realized at different levels of automation:
• Level 0: The human driver is in complete control of all functions of the car.
• Level 1: One function is automated. Therefore an automated system on the vehicle can sometimes assist and gives the directions to the human driver. These exist today in vehicle warning systems, such as blind spot detection, back-up detection, and lane departure detection.
• Level 2: More than one function is automated at the same time in a vehicle. For example, steering and acceleration. But the human driver must stay constantly alert.
• Level 3: The driving functions in a vehicle are suitably automated that the driver can safely involve in other activities.
• Level 4: The car can drive itself without a human driver and can perform all driving tasks, under all conditions that a human driver could perform.
Advantages of Autonomous Vehicle:
Autonomous vehicles are likely to increase vehicle travel by non-drivers, such as people with disabilities and adolescents. Autonomous driving increases driver convenience and productivity, which can stimulate vehicle travel, for example, encouraging users to choose longer commute and errand trips, and more sprawled locations.
Drawbacks of Autonomous vehicle:
Under many circumstances, autonomous vehicles are likely to increase congestion, energy, pollution and roadway costs. For example, if they strictly follow traffic laws and maximize caution, such as speed limits and optimal spacing between vehicles, they will reduce traffic speeds and increase delays. To maximize comfort, so passengers can rest or work, users may program their vehicle to minimize acceleration and deceleration rates, reducing traffic speeds. If programmed for maximum caution in unexpected conditions, they may frequently stop to wait for human instructions. Without significant policy reforms, such as higher road user fees and roadway management that favours share vehicles, autonomous vehicles are likely to increase total vehicle travel, and therefore traffic problems. Over the long run they may encourage sprawled, automobile-dependent development, increasing sprawl-related costs, and by reducing public transit demand, reduce non-auto travel options. Autonomous vehicles may require higher roadway maintenance standards, such as clearer line painting and special traffic signals. Autonomous operation can reduce parking costs by allowing vehicles to park further from destinations, but most users will probably want their vehicles available within five or ten minutes, and so must park within a mile or two. To avoid paying for parking, autonomous vehicles may circle city blocks, increasing traffic congestion.
Many people hope that autonomous vehicles solve transportation problems. Optimists predict that by 2030, Level 5 vehicle, able to operate autonomously under all normal conditions, will be sufficiently reliable, affordable and common to displace most human operated vehicles, providing many benefits to users and society overall. However, there are some considerable reasons to be sceptical. Most optimistic predictions are made by people with financial interests in the industry, based on experience with disruptive technologies such as digital cameras, smart phones and personal computers. They tend to exaggerate benefits, and ignore significant obstacles and costs.
There is significant uncertainty concerning autonomous vehicle benefits, costs, deployment speed, consumer demand and travel impacts. Significant progress is still needed before autonomous vehicles can operate reliably under all normal conditions, including mixed urban traffic, heavy rain and snow, unpaved and unmapped roads, and poor Internet connections. Several years of testing and regulatory approval will be required before autonomous vehicles can become commercially available. Autonomous operation will add significant costs. Transportation professionals such as engineers, planners and policy analysts’ planners have important roles to play in autonomous vehicle development and deployment process.