The global Alzheimer's diagnostic test market in research settings has evolved rapidly over the past few decades. The US National Institute, International Working Group (IWG) on Aging and Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) are together contributing towards the efforts of amalgamating biomarkers to research diagnostic criteria. Alzheimers is one of the primary cause of mortality in the United States. The Alzheimer's diagnostic test market is expected to reach xx USD billion by the end of forecast period (2018-2025) growing at a CAGR of xx%.
Disease that leads to dementia is Alzheimer's — an array of brain disorders that destroys social and intellectual skills of an individual. This disease tends to degenerate brain cells and then pass away, rendering decline in memory and its function. At initial stage of the Alzheimer's disease, individuals may face difficulty remembering and notice mild confusion. Eventually, they forget key things of day-to-day life and suffer drastic personality disorders.
Moreover, growing number of Alzheimer’s cases has led to the rapid development of Alzheimer's diagnostic test market size. However, one of the primary factor contributing towards the market is, growing number of elderly population. Since the disease at onset is not easily detected, developing innovative diagnostics procedure and tools has been highly emphasized. In addition, Alzheimer’s is most common neuro degenerative disorder, still plentiful amount of R & D is conducted to identify suitable treatment and diagnostic for Alzheimer's diagnostic test industry.
Causes of Alzheimer’s disease
Diagnose of a medical condition, professionals need to identify the cause behind the disease. Alzheimer’s cause is vague. But lifestyle, genetics and environment are major contributing factors for Alzheimer’s disease. However, the fact is, Alzheimer’s destroys brain cells leading to brain shrinking. Individuals with Alzheimer’s has two defined abnormality including plaques and tangles.
Plaques: These are clumps of protein called amyloid plaques, interfere communication between brain cells leading to damage and eventually death of brain cells.
Tangles: The system that passes nutrients to other body parts from brain is a protein named Tau. Threads of these proteins in individual suffering from Alzheimer’s, begin to collect in the brain cells thus prevent nutrients to pass on.
Genetics: The Apo lipoprotein E gene (APOE) has its parts in later stages of Alzheimer’s. However, it’s not necessary to have Alzheimer while having this gene. Most early-onset cases are caused by alteration in certain genes which are inherited.
Diagnosing Alzheimer's involves a complete assessment that considers all possible causes starting from medical history assessment to brain tests.
Medical history: While examining medical history of a patient, health care providers interrogate past as well as current illness, and medications patient is undergoing. Even the medical professionals enquires about medical conditions affecting patient’ Physical exam and diagnostic tests.
Physical exam and diagnostic tests: During a medical workup, physicians check blood pressure, pulse and temperature. Take notes on heartbeats and lungs. Even collect blood or urine samples for laboratory testing.
Information collected from a laboratory tests and physical exam helps in recognizing health issues that are causing symptoms of dementia. Medical conditions apart from Alzheimer’s that may led to memory problems, trouble focusing and confused thinking include kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid abnormalities, anemia, infection, diabetes, etc.
Neurological exam: During a neurological exam, the physician tests closely Reflexes, Eye movement, Coordination, Speech and Sensation to evaluate the patient for problems that may indicate brain disorders other than Alzheimer's. Healthcare provider look for signs of Parkinson's disease, small or large strokes, fluid accumulation on the brain, brain tumors and other illnesses.
Mental status tests: This test evaluates memory, thinking skills and ability to solve simple problems. Such tests examine overall sense of whether a person knows the date, time, and space, aware of symptoms, ability to learn short list of words, do simple calculation and follow instructions.
Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) Test: A patient has to answer a questionnaire prepared by a health professional which has series of questions test everyday mental skills. A score from 20 to 24, 13 to 20 and less than 12 suggests mild dementia, moderate dementia, and severe dementia respectively.
Mini-Cog Test: A person has to complete two tasks: Remember and recall three common objects after several minutes and Drawing a clock with 12 numbers and time specified by examiner.
Regional Analysis of Global Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic Market:
North America accounts for largest Alzheimer's diagnostic test market share. Europe comes at the second place for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostic. Furthermore, Asia Pacific is anticipated to be the fastest growing region in Alzheimer’s disease diagnostic test market size.