Food waste is the assimilation of unconsumed food items across landfills that amount to surged incidences of disease, vermin, as well as environmental hazard. Rise in food waste assimilation results in the release of greenhouse gases such as methane that have far reaching implications as compared to carbon dioxide emissions. Recycling food waste has emerged as one of the most acknowledged food waste management solutions. However, it is very difficult for recycling or treating the food waste containing sodium salt. Thus, they are mixing the waste with moisture while collection. Food waste generators are including industries of food processing, airline caterers, cafeterias, residential blocks, supermarkets, restaurants and hotels.
Food waste makes up for the largest stream of waste after yard and paper in the United States. Thus, in year 2008, 13% of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced was food scraps amounting to around 30 Mn tons. As per EPA, in year 2008, food waste of 32 Mn tons were thrown in incinerators or landfills. With reference to the United Kingdom, every year, 8.5 Bn tons of food is thrown by households. Thus, statistics are suggesting a massive rise in unaddressed food waste and their reciprocal perils on global environmental conditions.
Strategy of food waste is increasing the proportion of food waste in stream of municipal waste for ensuring the sustainable and eco-friendly disposal. Hence, recycling of food waste is done by:
Biomethanation: Breaking down of the biodegradable waste by the treatment without oxygen, manufacturing the renewable energy for generating heat and electricity.
Composition: Breaking down of biodegradable waste using the natural treatment of micro-organism with oxygen in tunnel or enclosed vessel.
In recent years, over 4% of total food waste in the US are directed towards making compost, thereby improving soil and plant quality. However, huge amounts of landfilled food waste is unlikely to be completely transformed into compost. Hence, the time is ripe to implement alternative recycling methods besides conventional compost creation. In recent years, several notable steps have been undertaken to direct food waste into energy, thus tangibly reducing food waste burden.
As a result, there is the vital need for exploring the substitutes of recycling. However, the digestion of anaerobics are present in stabilizing the food waste of Asian and European countries offering the end-products. Thus, England, Germany, Denmark, Austria and Sweden are involved in developing advanced technologies of biogas and starting new projects for converting the waste food in energy.
Various organic wastes are present, where food waste is having the capability of economy exploitation containing huge amount of carbon and are effectively converting into organic fertilizers and biogas. Thus, food waste is mostly useful as substrate in biogas plant, and is co-digesting with the organic waste such as slaughterhouse wastes, crop residues, sewage, poultry litter and cow manure.
In recent years, Italy has successfully launched several food waste management mechanism to deal with persistent food waste challenges. Thus, Italian Senate is passing the particular bill offering the payment to businesses donating food to different programs of funds and charities for dealing with the food waste in hospitals and schools. Leading activists and enthusiasts are running through Zero Waste campaign. Hence, Italy retailer Coop is collaborating with Slow Food for creating the selfie campaign of around 100 Faces in contrast of waste. This collaborative effort is directed to supply excess food across retail outlets to charities, thus serving dual needs of zero waste as well as corporate social responsibility.