Pipeline surveillance is a crucial research field due to the economic importance of pipelines also because of the health and safety implications of pipeline incidents. WSN has been identified as an economical solution for pipeline surveillance. Besides pipeline surveillance, other applications of WSN in the oil and gas sector include leakage detection, Tank Level Monitoring, Equipment Condition Based Monitoring (CBM), Pipeline Pressure Relief Valve Monitoring (PRV), Refineries Pressure Relief Valve Monitoring (PRV) and Wellhead Automation and Monitoring. Although most pipeline surveillance systems have focused on leak detection, few pipeline surveillance systems have tried to deal with threat detection in pipelines. Sun and Wen investigated pipeline threat detection and security by developing a pre-warning system for pipeline security using multi-seismic sensors. Liang et. all studied risk assessment of pipelines supported malicious and accidental threats.
Most WSNs sense physical quantities like temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation etc. These sensing activities utilize power, so regulating the frequency of activities by these WSNs conserves energy.
During a computing system , the three units that utilize most of the energy are the processor, display and hard disc units. The processor and radio transceiver use most of the energy in WSNs. Dynamic Voltage Scaling, an emerging technology for reducing power
utilization in hand-held devices is sweet for WMSN energy optimization.
Media Access Control (MAC) may be a technique utilized in both computer and sensor networks to regulate and manage data transmission. one among the elemental tasks of MAC is to regulate data transmission in Networks in order that two competing nodes don't transmit at an equivalent time. Different MAC protocols are used for optimizing energy utilization in wireless environments. Sensor – MAC (S-MAC) may be a MAC protocol designed to reduce energy utilization in WSN. It reduces energy utilization by dividing the node time into periodic sleep and listening time. Timeout-MAC (T-MAC) has also been proposed.
This improves on S-MAC by reducing the listening time and transmitting the info in bursts of packets within the tiny listening time. Also, IEEE 802.15.4 is the standard MAC protocol for low power, low rate wireless networks. it's the quality in most motes at the present . It achieves low power utilization via low power transmission, small frame size and energy-efficient Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithms.
Partitioning System Approach
There's a requirement to seek out the proper balance within the trade-off between processing data at the sensor node and processing at the bottom station. When data is processed at the bottom station, it saves the sensor node tons of power since the bottom station has more computational capability and no power constraint. On the other hand, transmitting unprocessed data requires more energy than processed data which is a smaller amount in size.
Various routing protocols utilized in WSN are designed to optimize energy during data transmission. Some hierarchical protocols like Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold-Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network protocol (TEEN) and Adaptive Periodic Threshold-sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network (APTEEN) minimize energy utilization during processing and transmission are comparisons of energy utilization and longevity for these protocols respectively.