Bio-fertilizers promotes the growth of trees, plants by rising the supply of required nutrients to the host plant. It contains living organisms that comprise mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria, and blue-green algae. However, mycorrhizal fungi specifically extract minerals from organic matter for the plants where cyanobacteria are categorized by the property of nitrogen obsession. They are harmful as compared to chemical fertilizers.
Nitrogen fixation is a process of transforming the di-nitrogen molecules in nitrogen compounds. However, some bacteria transform insoluble forms of soil phosphorus into soluble forms. Hence, phosphorus will be obtainable for plants.
Over the decades, chemical fertilizers have aided farmers to increase crop production to meet the rising demand. Though, the extra use of such fertilizers is harmful because they cause water and air pollution.
Significance of Bio-fertilizers
- Bio-fertilizers do not let pathogens to flourish.
- They improve yield of plants and soil texture.
- They are cost-effective and eco-friendly.
- Bio-fertilizers defend the atmosphere from pollutants.
- Bio-fertilizers destroy several harmful components existing in the soil which causes plant diseases.
- They are proven to be effective even with semi-arid conditions.
Types of Bio-fertilizers
- Loose Association Bacteria
Azospirillum is the nitrogen-fixing bacteria which live around the plants roots but don’t develop an intimate correlation with plants. However, it is also referred as rhizosphere Association as the bacteria gather plant exudate and the same is utilized as a food by them. Hence, this process is known as associative mutualism.
- Symbiotic Bacteria
Rhizobium is the most common symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, bacteria seek shelter and achieve food from plants. As a result, they aid by providing fixed nitrogen of the plants.
A cyanobacteria or blue-green algae from the symbiotic association with number of plants. Cycad roots, liverworts, lichens, and fern are some of the type of Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. However, Anabaena is found at the leaf cavities of the fern. Hence, it is responsible for nitrogen fixation. However, the fern plants release and decay the same for use of the rice plants.
- Free-Living Bacteria
These are free-living soil bacteria that perform nitrogen fixation. These bacteria’s are anaerobes such as beijerinckii, Closridium, Bacillus polymyxin, and Azotobacter.
Components of Bio-fertilizers
It is nonpathogenic and eco-friendly product which is used in a number of crops and in ornamental and horticultural plants such as paddy apple, brinjal, sugar cane, vegetables, cotton, citrus etc.
- Bio Compost
It is the most common Eco-friendly product which is composed of waste material produced from sugar industries that are decomposed. Bio Compost exaggerated with human-friendly bacteria, plants, and fungi.
It is used to recognize the nitrogen level of the soil. It produces phosphorus in the soil to settle the phosphorus in clay materials.
Azotobacter protects the roots from pathogens which is present in the soil and it plays a significant role in fixing the environmental nitrogen.
- Vermi Compost
Vermi Compost is an eco-friendly fertilizer which include hormones, vitamins, sulfur, organic carbon, antibiotics which aid to improve the quality and quantity of yield. It is one of the fastest fixes to increase the fertility of the soil.